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The project manager is responsible only for enabling the process and facilitating it.


If the project manager feels that the quality of the document is questionable, his or her duty is to stop the development process. The project manager reviews the requirements, incorporates them into the project documentation library, and uses them as an input for the project plan. The problem may be to automate part of a task of someone who will use the software, to support the business processes of the organization that has commissioned the software, to correct shortcomings of existing software, to control a device, etc.

The functioning of users, business processes, and devices is typically complex. Therefore, the requirements on particular software are typically a complex combination of requirements from different people at different levels of an organization and from the environment in which the software will operate. An essential property of all software requirements is that they be verifiable. It may be difficult or costly to verify certain software requirements.

Both the software requirements and software quality personnel must ensure that the requirements can be verified within the available resource constraints. Requirements have other attributes in addition to the behavioural properties that they express. Common examples include a priority rating to enable trade-offs in the face of finite resources and a status value to enable project progress to be monitored.

Typically, software requirements are uniquely identified so that they can be monitored over the entire software life cycle.

6 Processes of Project Scope Management

As a practical matter, it is typically useful to have some concept of the volume of the requirements for a particular software product. This number is useful in evaluating the size of a change in requirements, in estimating the cost of a development or maintenance task, or simply in using it as the denominator in other measurements see Table 9. The project manager gathers initial project facts from the project charter.

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Project managers need to educate stakeholders about the project impacts of some requirements. It may also have an impact on project quality. Some aspects of the project may be unfeasible — stakeholders need to know this so they can adjust their vision or prepare for future challenges. Gathering requirements is part of scope definition, and it can be done using one or more of following techniques:.

Project Manager Job Description

The requirements traceability matrix is a table that links requirements to their origin and traces them throughout the project life cycle. The implementation of a requirements traceability matrix helps ensure that each requirement adds business value by linking it to the business and project objectives.

What is Project Scope? Project Management in Under 5

It provides a means to track requirements throughout the project life cycle, helping to ensure that requirements approved in the requirements documentation are delivered at the end of the project. Finally, it provides a structure for managing changes to the product scope. This process includes, but is not limited to, tracking:. Attributes associated with each requirement can be recorded in the requirements traceability matrix. These attributes help to define key information about the requirement.

Typical attributes used in the requirements traceability matrix may include a unique identifier, a textual description of the requirement, the rationale for inclusion, owner, source, priority, version, current status such as active, cancelled, deferred, added, approved , and date completed. The WBS defines the scope of the project and breaks the work down into components that can be scheduled, estimated, and easily monitored and controlled.

Anyone familiar with the arrangements of folders and files in a computer memory or who has researched their ancestral family tree should be familiar with this idea. You stop breaking down the work when you reach a low enough level to perform an estimate of the desired accuracy. At that point, it is usually easier to estimate how long the small task will take and how much it will cost to perform than it would have been to estimate these factors at the higher levels.

Each descending level of the WBS represents an increased level of detailed definition of the project work. WBS describes the products or services to be delivered by the project and how they are decomposed and related. It is a deliverable-oriented decomposition of a project into smaller components.

The Five Phases of a Project

A WBS also provides the necessary framework for detailed cost estimating and control, along with providing guidance for schedule development and control. WBS is a hierarchical decomposition of the project into phases, deliverables, and work packages. In a project or contract, the WBS is developed by starting with the end objective and successively subdividing it into manageable components in terms of size, duration, and responsibility e. If I want to clean a room, I might begin by picking up clothes, toys, and other things that have been dropped on the floor.

I could use a vacuum cleaner to get dirt out of the carpet. I might take down the curtains and take them to the cleaners, and then dust the furniture. All of these tasks are subtasks performed to clean the room. As for vacuuming the room, I might have to get the vacuum cleaner out of the closet, connect the hose, empty the bag, and put the machine back in the closet.

These are smaller tasks to be performed in accomplishing the subtask called vacuuming. Figure 9. That will be worked out when we develop the schedule. For example, under 3. However, you will probably find yourself thinking sequentially, as it seems to be human nature to do so. The main idea of creating a WBS is to capture all of the tasks, irrespective of their order. A WBS can be structured any way it makes sense to you and your project. In practice, the chart structure is used quite often but it can be composed in outline form as well Figure 9.

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  7. Collectively, these numeric identifiers are known as the code of accounts. There are also many ways you can organize the WBS. For example, it can be organized by either deliverable or phase. The major deliverables of the project are used as the first level in the WBS. For example, if you are doing a multimedia project the deliverables might include producing a book, CD, and a DVD Figure 9. Many projects are structured or organized by project phases Figure 9.

    Each phase would represent the first level of the WBS and their deliverables would be the next level and so on. The project manager is free to determine the number of levels in the WBS based on the complexity of the project. You need to include enough levels to accurately estimate project time and costs but not so many levels that are difficult to distinguish between components.

    Regardless of the number of levels in a WBS, the lowest level is called a work package. Work packages are the components that can be easily assigned to one person or a team of people, with clear accountability and responsibility for completing the assignment. The work-package level is where time estimates, cost estimates, and resource estimates are determined. The percent rule is the most important criterion in developing and evaluating the WBS. The rule states that each decomposed level child must represent percent of the work applicable to the next higher parent element.

    This type of RMP might be appropriate for larger, riskier projects. On some smaller efforts the RMP can be an informal roadmap. In either case, it is subsidiary to the overall project management plan. Requirements documentation. Requirements are always documented, either formally or informally. Requirements might be documented as part of a detailed requirements specification, in the form of a short text known as a user story, or as part of one or several models, such as a business process, data, or use case model, or as a prototype or mock-up.

    There is no right way or wrong way to document requirements, as long as all the requirements are understood by everyone who hears or reads them--which means they need to be "good. In order for a requirement to be worth managing, it must be useful. To be useful, a requirement has to be understood by all key stakeholders. Sponsors and business subject matter experts need to know that the ultimate solution will solve their problem and meet their objectives.

    Developers need to understand how to design and build the final product. The testing staff needs to be able to find and remove any defects the product may have. Change managers Human Resources staff, consultants, business managers, etc.