Vienna: Springer-Verlag. Profiling Linguistic Disability. London: Arnold. Linguistic Encounters with Language Handicap. Oxford: Blackwell. Clinical linguistics. Rees-Miller Eds. Garman The Grammatical Analysis of Language Disability. Maassen, B. Groenen London: Whurr.
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Principles of Clinical Linguistics. Howard Eds b. The results of his study showed that the listed activities in theoretical linguistics with works are almost twice the number of the works in applied linguistics Based on the number of works, grammatical issues, sociolinguistics, and dialectologies are ranked from the first to the third, respectively. Furthermore, Persian orthographic branches, glossaries and dictionaries, translations, computer linguistics, and speech pathology had the least contributions. Naseh 14 presented theses from 30 universities in abstracts and introductions.
Among them, abstracts were in the field of general linguistics and the rest were about Farsi literature, teaching Farsi language to non-native speakers. He also mentioned some related fields such as speech therapy, but not all of them. At the end of his collection, he presented a subject index, but there was no term such as disorder to find the number of linguistic studies about disorders.
Just one index was used for language pathology in which one thesis was mentioned. In , abstracts of speech therapy theses were collected and organized in rehabilitation universities and faculties. Of course, they were classified based on the subjects and their universities and the educational level rather than their linguistic domains Crystal studied articles to investigate the type and trend of studies in the field of clinical linguistics which were published in the journals of clinical linguistics and phonology in 15 years.
The results of his study showed that phonology and phonemics comprised the bulk of the research with and articles, respectively and after them, grammar, discourse, pragmatics, semantics, and sociolinguistics comprised 34, 30, 9, 9, and 3 articles, respectively.
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In the next step, he classified articles based on disorders. His study showed that the maximum amount of research was related to aphasia, apraxia, dysarthria, hearing loss, stuttering and cleft palate Marrero and Pineda investigated the articles sent to the second international conference of clinical linguistics held in In addition to English which was the language of the majority of studies, more than half of the studies were related to the Romanian Spanish, Italian and Portuguese.
The maximum amount of research in the field of linguistics was related to phonology and phonetics and the minimum was related to semantics and sociology Since the studies in an area can reflect requirements and needs of that area, author decided to conduct this research to pave the way and find research priorities of clinical linguistics in Iran. First, the titles of all BA , MA and PhD theses in speech therapy were collected from the beginning of this major in Iran the first graduation in from medical universities of Shiraz, Ahvaz, Semnan, Mashhad and Tehran provinces Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences and University of social welfare and rehabilitation sciences.
The studies focused on a specific disorder, general subjects such as language development or studies which did not belong to any of these four domains were classified in the fifth group. In the next step, studies related to linguistics as MS or PhD theses of linguistics were studied from the beginning of this major in Iran up to In this regard, theses on disorders were recognized and separated.
In this study, all titles and summaries of linguistic theses were mentioned since the beginning of this major in Iran up to For the studies from to , theses recorded in electronic library portal of universities were used.
The contribution of clinical phonetics to the investigation of oracy problems in the classroom.
As it can be observed in Figure 2 , studies on the handicapped children 0. The first linguistic thesis in this area was on aphasia in But recent theses are focused on other linguistic disorders such as autism. This finding is consistent with the results of the study by Kaveh 12 in which the minimum amount of linguistic research belonged to computer linguistics, language and speech pathology.
The results show that most of the linguistic studies are conducted on the area of disorders related to aphasia and a few of them studied language disorders in children with autism. Researches on reading and writing disorders are in the second place.
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According to the research by Crystal, the majority of foreign studies published in clinical linguistic journals in the last 15 years were on aphasia The study of theses conducted on linguistics shows that aphasia was the first domain which attracted many linguists. However, the initial studies had very general subjects such as aphasia disorders, while the recent studies were about the application of linguistic theories in disorders; for example, the analysis of available processes in the speech of people with aphasia in the Persian language in systemic functional linguistics.
In recent studies, the domains of studies are not limited to aphasia but focused on other disorders such as cleft palate, autism, etc. The trend of these studies shows a combination of linguistics and speech therapy and indicates development of clinical linguistics. The reason can be the objectivity of phonology and high number of disorders in this area, since the articulation disorder rate is very high compared to other disorders. On the other hand, phonology is very interesting for experts because of its connection with reading and writing disorders; therefore, most of the phonological studies are in the area of phonological awareness and its relationship with reading disorders.
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