As a result of this accident, Philby, who was well-liked by the Nationalist forces whose victories he trumpeted, was awarded the Red Cross of Military Merit by Franco on 2 March Philby found that the award proved helpful in obtaining access to fascist circles:. After I had been wounded and decorated by Franco himself, I became known as 'the English-decorated-by-Franco' and all sorts of doors opened to me.
In , Walter Krivitsky born Samuel Ginsberg , a former GRU officer in Paris who had defected to France the previous year, travelled to the United States and published an account of his time in "Stalin's secret service". Krivitsky claimed that two Soviet intelligence agents had penetrated the British Foreign Office and that a third Soviet intelligence agent had worked as a journalist for a British newspaper during the civil war in Spain. No connection with Philby was made at the time, and Krivitsky was found shot in a Washington hotel room the following year.
Alexander Orlov born Lev Feldbin; code-name Swede , Philby's controller in Madrid, who had once met him in Perpignan , France, with the bulge of an automatic rifle clearly showing through his raincoat, also defected. At the same time, Burgess was trying to get her into MI6. But the resident Russian term for spymaster in France, probably Pierre at this time, suggested to Moscow that he suspected Philby's motives. When Britain declared war on Germany in September , Philby's contact with his Soviet controllers was lost and Philby failed to attend the meetings that were necessary for his work.
He briefly reported from Cherbourg and Brest , sailing for Plymouth less than twenty-four hours before the French surrendered to Germany in June In , on the recommendation of Burgess, Philby joined MI6's Section D, a secret organisation charged with investigating how enemies might be attacked through non-military means.
Burgess was arrested in September for drunken driving and was subsequently fired,  while Philby was appointed as an instructor on clandestine propaganda at the SOE's finishing school for agents at the Estate of Lord Montagu  in Beaulieu, Hampshire. This role allowed him to conduct sabotage and instruct agents on how to properly conduct sabotage.
Philby replied that none had been sent and that none were undergoing training at that time. This statement was underlined twice in red and marked with two question marks, clearly indicating their confusion and questioning of this, by disbelieving staff at Moscow Central in the Lubyanka , according to Genrikh Borovik, who saw the telegrams much later in the KGB archives.
The first was ignored as a provocation, but the second, when this was confirmed by the Russo-German journalist and spy in Tokyo, Richard Sorge , contributed to Stalin's decision to begin transporting troops from the Far East in time for the counteroffensive around Moscow. By September , Philby began working for Section Five of MI6, a section responsible for offensive counter-intelligence.
On the strength of his knowledge and experience of Franco's Spain, Philby was put in charge of the subsection which dealt with Spain and Portugal. This entailed responsibility for a network of undercover operatives in several cities such as Madrid, Lisbon, Gibraltar and Tangier. Thanks to British counter-intelligence efforts, of which Philby's Iberian subsection formed a significant part, the project code-named Bodden never came to fruition.
In late Philby, on instructions from his Soviet handler, maneuvered through the system successfully to replace Cowgill as head of Section Nine.
Angleton, later chief of the Central Intelligence Agency 's CIA Counterintelligence Staff , became suspicious of Philby when he failed to pass on information relating to a British agent executed by the Gestapo in Germany. It later emerged that the agent — known as Schmidt — had also worked as an informant for the Rote Kapelle organisation, which sent information to both London and Moscow. Barclay reported the complaint to London. Philby claimed to have overheard discussion of this by chance and sent a report to his controller.
These lapses by Philby aroused intense suspicion in Moscow. She noted that they produced an extraordinary wealth of information on German war plans but next to nothing on the repeated question of British penetration of Soviet intelligence in either London or Moscow.
Philby had repeated his claim that there were no such agents. She asked, "Could the SIS really be such fools they failed to notice suitcase-loads of papers leaving the office? Could they have overlooked Philby's Communist wife? A more serious incident occurred in August , when Konstantin Volkov , an NKVD agent and vice-consul in Istanbul , requested political asylum in Britain for himself and his wife.
For a large sum of money, Volkov offered the names of three Soviet agents inside Britain, two of whom worked in the Foreign Office and a third who worked in counter-espionage in London. Philby was given the task of dealing with Volkov by British intelligence. He warned the Soviets of the attempted defection and travelled personally to Istanbul — ostensibly to handle the matter on behalf of SIS but, in reality, to ensure that Volkov had been neutralised. By the time he arrived in Turkey, three weeks later, Volkov had been removed to Moscow.
The intervention of Philby in the affair and the subsequent capture of Volkov by the Soviets might have seriously compromised Philby's position. However, Volkov's defection had been discussed with the British Embassy in Ankara on telephones which turned out to have been tapped by Soviet intelligence. Additionally, Volkov had insisted that all written communications about him take place by bag rather than by telegraph, causing a delay in reaction that might plausibly have given the Soviets time to uncover his plans.
Philby was thus able to evade blame and detection. A month later Igor Gouzenko , a cipher clerk in Ottawa , took political asylum in Canada and gave the Royal Canadian Mounted Police names of agents operating within the British Empire that were known to him.
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When Jane Archer who had interviewed Krivitsky was appointed to Philby's section he moved her off investigatory work in case she became aware of his past. He later wrote "she had got a tantalising scrap of information about a young English journalist whom the Soviet intelligence had sent to Spain during the Civil War. And here she was plunked down in my midst! In February , Philby was appointed head of British intelligence for Turkey, and posted to Istanbul with his second wife, Aileen, and their family.
His public position was that of First Secretary at the British Consulate; in reality, his intelligence work required overseeing British agents and working with the Turkish security services. But efforts among the expatriate community in Paris produced just two recruits.
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Turkish intelligence took them to a border crossing into Georgia but soon afterwards shots were heard. Another effort was made using a Turkish gulet for a seaborne landing, but it never left port. He was implicated in a similar campaign in Albania. Colonel David Smiley , an aristocratic Guards officer who had helped Enver Hoxha and his Communist guerillas to liberate Albania, now prepared to remove Hoxha.
He trained Albanian commandos — some of whom were former Nazi collaborators — in Libya or Malta. From , they infiltrated the southern mountains to build support for former King Zog. The first three missions, overland from Greece, were trouble-free. Larger numbers were landed by sea and air under Operation Valuable , which continued until , increasingly under the influence of the newly formed CIA. Most infiltrators were caught by the Sigurimi , the Albanian Security Service.
His own comment was "I do not say that people were happy under the regime but the CIA underestimated the degree of control that the Authorities had over the country. The agents we sent into Albania were armed men intent on murder, sabotage and assassination They knew the risks they were running.
The Funeral of Aliguyen.
I was serving the interests of the Soviet Union and those interests required that these men were defeated. To the extent that I helped defeat them, even if it caused their deaths, I have no regrets.
Aileen Philby had suffered since childhood from psychological problems which caused her to inflict injuries upon herself. In , troubled by the heavy drinking and frequent depressions that had become a feature of her husband's life in Istanbul, she experienced a breakdown of this nature, staging an accident and injecting herself with urine and insulin to cause skin disfigurations. Upon her return to Istanbul in late , she was badly burned in an incident with a charcoal stove and returned to Switzerland.
In September , the Philbys arrived in the United States. Officially, his post was that of First Secretary to the British Embassy; in reality, he served as chief British intelligence representative in Washington. His office oversaw a large amount of urgent and top-secret communications between the United States and London. Philby was also responsible for liaising with the CIA and promoting "more aggressive Anglo-American intelligence operations".
Angleton remained suspicious of Philby, but lunched with him every week in Washington. However, a more serious threat to Philby's position had come to light.
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During the summer of , a Soviet cipher clerk had reused a one time pad to transmit intelligence traffic. This mistake made it possible to break the normally impregnable code. Contained in the traffic intercepted and decrypted as part of the Venona project was information that documents had been sent to Moscow from the British Embassy in Washington.
The intercepted messages revealed that the British Embassy source identified as "Homer" travelled to New York City to meet his Soviet contact twice a week. Philby had been briefed on the situation shortly before reaching Washington in ; it was clear to Philby that the agent was Donald Maclean, who worked in the British Embassy at the time and whose wife, Melinda, lived in New York. Philby had to help discover the identity of "Homer", but also wished to protect Maclean. In January , on evidence provided by the Venona intercepts, Soviet atomic spy Klaus Fuchs was arrested. The investigation into the British Embassy leak was still ongoing, and the stress of it was exacerbated by the arrival in Washington, in October , of Guy Burgess — Philby's unstable and dangerously alcoholic fellow Soviet spy.
Burgess, who had been given a post as Second Secretary at the British Embassy, took up residence in the Philby family home and rapidly set about causing offence to all and sundry. Aileen Philby resented him and disliked his presence; Americans were offended by his "natural superciliousness" and "utter contempt for the whole pyramid of values, attitudes, and courtesies of the American way of life". Edgar Hoover complained that Burgess used British Embassy automobiles to avoid arrest when he cruised Washington in pursuit of homosexual encounters.
They had already been down to the Embassy but being unable to work had come back. Burgess's presence was problematic for Philby, yet it was potentially dangerous for Philby to leave him unsupervised. The situation in Washington was tense. From April , Maclean had been the prime suspect in the investigation into the Embassy leak. Burgess had to get to London to warn Maclean, who was under surveillance.